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The patterns on the blade would suggest it's made of Damascus steel. A real-life forging technique that is somewhat of a lost art.
Damascus steel is still widely used. Many use a modern welded version that is easier to mass produce but there are still those who make it the traditional way by folding different steels into each other. These days it is mostly used for decoration as it is far surpassed by modern steels where the composition and structure can be finely tuned for a specific task or use.
This is 99.9% NOT Damascus steel. Since it's a katana, I'd guess thisis done with a special tempering technique the japanese sword smiths used. The result of this technuque is this pattern we see on the Chaos Blade. There are several types of patterns, depending on the region and on a particular smith, and the one here, I believe, is a variation of "Itame-hada" - a "wood grain pattern", rather common one. Although, I must say, I've never seen a pattern as distinct as this one. But then, Chaos Blade is no ordinary weapon, after all.
Actually it IS damascus so shut up and you're wrong
If you are so sure as to tell me to "shut up", I would ask you to present arguments, supporting you point of view. Until then I will consider you a troll and ignore you.

Sakerift

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So for one, the idea or myth that Damascus steel is a "lost art" is hilarious. For two, the weakest argument I've ever heard is "shut up, you're wrong".
Wootz has not been recreated. It was mainly distributed from the city of Damascus. It's what Valyrian steel is based on. Pattern well differs from Wootz or True Damascus Steel because of its distinct water pattern that you cannot achieve via pattern weld. Wootz however is more of a homogeneous steel versus a patterned weld.
I just realised: the Chaos Blade may be the only boss soul item in the whole series, the origins of which are an absolute mystery. Most boss soul items are the weapons or spells used by the owners of the souls. Others may have connection (sometimes rather obscure, but a connection nevertheless) to their respective bosses. But the Chaos Blade is not used by Quelaag, nor is it connected to her in any way. It's just said, that it is "born from the soul of Quelaag, daughter of the Witch of Izalith", but it is not explained why and I can't think of any reason at all either.
There is cut content related to Shiva of the East having a black eye orb, suggesting he was supposed to betray you and be invaded later like Lautrec.
As Andre directly say those in blackroot garden are bandits preying in adventurers, Shiva having a eastern style armor and moving later to blighttown as a vendor, some people thing the Chaos Blade was supposed to be his.
Hm... That's an interesting idea, but since there is no known cut-or-otherwise content directly indicating where the Chaos Blade comes from, the mystery is still unsolved.
Also, Chaos Blade is the only weapon, that is created multiple times, but out of a different soul. Darkmoon Bow is made twice, but it's always Gwindolyn's soul (as a part of Aldrich's). Moonlight Greatsword is created three times - once out of Seath's tail and other two times out of souls associated with and probably tainted by Seath. Chaos Blade is created the first time out of Quelaag's soul, who, while being a daugter of The Witch of Izalith, is a different person and has a different soul. The second time an Old Witch Soul is required, which is thought to be a tiny remnant of the Great Soul of The Witch of Izalith. While the "chaos" part is the same, the soul is different.
Although, looking at it's description in DS3, that blade might just be born from the Chaos Flame itself, rather than from any particular soul...
Tha Chaos Blade is made from her essence (chaos flame?), while the Furysword is made from her body. It's shallow, but that is the origin story. In the cut concept, the CB was behind the three demon statues before the sister elevator, btw. More over, multiple versions of the same item can exist. The King's Shield in DS2 was not the Shield of Want from DS3, indicated by the textures. So the DS1 CB can be made from Quelaag's soul, while a different CB can be made from the Old Witch's soul. The blade itself seems to be more associated with chaos itself than a singular being. Which is kinda the thing with how the chaos flame works.
I'm not sure that several identical items can exist at the same time, at least, not lore-wise. I think, that all those boss soul weapons just fade away over millenia, kind of like daedric artifacts in TES universe and are "found" or "brought back" again. Great souls in DS have a flame-like appearance, so they, I think, are flame itself and anything born from them is flame granted form, but flame nevertheless. So it can go out, when not kindled regularly (when unused for a long time), so...