For being so mundanely placed, right at the beginning of the game, there's frustratingly little to make sense of who he is and who he was. A Google search will tell you that Courland is a historical region of Latvia, but there is no reference as to what that name means. A mildly interesting connection may be the Latvian word "kur" which traces various etymologies including "to cut, to heat, to burn, to create." The obvious overtones of this series directs us to, "to burn," and we can clumsily speculate a translation of Courland as "the Land of Burning." Given that Ludleth is a pygmy, and that his throne resembles the tombstones in the area we fight Gael, one conclusion is the possibility that Courland was a name for the Ringed City and/or its greater area. Ludleth tells us that Courland was "lost," which usually connotes destruction, and this doesn't line up with the fact that we can still very much travel there. But, from our travels in the Ringed City, we learn that it was once a city of relative import, and now languishes at world's end, the missions and visits it once received frequently long past, overrun by abyssal creatures, and so it could be considered "lost" in this sense. The land of the Pygmy royals being called "the Land of Burning" dovetails very satisfyingly with Gwyn sealing them with fire, and humanity's role as fuel for his Flame for ages on end. Just a thought.