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so, whats the best staff?

Either the court sorcerer or crystal mage depending on if you choose to use the steady chant
Well i would say court sorcerer since there are moments in which you cant use steady chant and the difference is really small
What's a good pathway when building a sorcery build (i.e. what's the best staffs to use at certain int ranges)?
sorcerer's staff (the one you start with) then heretics staff optionally up to 40, but past that you want to use the court sorcerer's staff, it's by far the best at 60 int
For people asking, past 60 int Court Sorcerers is the best (actually don't bother going past 60 int unless you have extra points). Izalith's is better for dark sorceries only I believe.
It might be a stupid question, but does reinforcing the staffs make the spells it cast stronger?
short answer: yes, as 23 anon said. Long answer: reinforcing a staff will also increase its stat scaling, which is the primary factor that influences its spellbuff, which is how it makes your spellcasting stronger.